Hematology (also spelled as haematology in British English) is the branch of medicine concerned with the study of the cause, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases related to blood. The field of hematology integrates clinical and laboratory medicine. It involves treating diseases that affect the production of blood and its components, such as blood cells, hemoglobin, blood proteins, bone marrow, platelets, blood vessels, spleen, lymphoid tissue, and the mechanism of coagulation.
Hematology treatments are conducted on an outpatient, day-care, or inpatient basis, depending on the specific needs of each patient.
Areas of study
Major areas of study within hematology include Red cell disorders and hemoglobinopathy, hematological malignancies, anemia, and coagulopathy.
Hemoglobinopathy is the study of abnormality in the globin chains of hemoglobin molecules. It includes sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, and other hereditary hemolytic disorders.
Hematological malignancies are concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of cancers of the bone marrow, blood and lymph nodes. The commonly hematological malignancies are:
Acute myeloid leukemia and Acute lymphoblastic leukemia,
Chronic myeloid leukemia and Chronic lymphocytic leukemia,
One of the most common hematology tests includes complete blood count (CBC) and peripheral blood smear (PBS). This test is often conducted during a routine exam and can detect anemia, bleeding disorders, blood cancers, immune system disorders, and infections.
Other common hematology tests for diagnosis and treatment include: